Manila after the World War II in 1948
Filmed by Rex from moving vehicle, remains of Manila’s old walled city. Aerial view of port.
|Battles of Manila|
The legendary Battle of Manila in 1258 is recounted in oral histories of the Tagalog people, as documented by Filipino historians Mariano Henson in the 1950s and Cesar Adib Majul in the 1950s. It is notable for marking one of the earliest proposed dates for the foundation of the pre-colonial polity at Maynila. Source
According to these legends, a Bruneian naval commander named Rajah Ahmad, established pre-colonial Maynila as a Muslim principality in 1258 after defeating its commander, a Majapahit ruler named Anuj Avirjirkaya.
The Battle of Manila in 1365 is an unspecified and disputed battle occurring somewhere in the vicinity of Manila between the forces of the kingdoms in Luzon and the Empire of Majapahit.
Even though the exact dates and details of this battle remain in dispute, there are claims of the conquest of the area around Saludong (Majapahit term for Luzon and Manila) according to the text of the Nagarakretagama which claims that Saludong (Luzon) and Solot (Sulu) were parts of Majapahit. This claim may be mythical because a couple of years earlier, warriors from Sulu had successfully attacked Borney (Brunei) which was a Majapahit vassal, and subsequently repulsed a Majapahit invasion force, and because outside of the Nagarakretagama, there is no evidence among pre-Hispanic Philippine documents that Saludong or Sulu was ever enslaved by the Majapahit empire. In fact, this claim was only mentioned in passing in a lone eulogy poem to Maharajah Hayam Wuruk and was not really a part of statecraft. Furthermore, the earlier Laguna Copperplate Inscription mentioned that Dongdu (Kingdom of Tondo) had diplomatic relations with the Kingdom of Medang, not with Majapahit. Source
The Battle of Manilla (1500s) was fought in Manila between forcess of the Kingdom of Tondo led by their Senapati, Lakan Sukwo, and the soldiers of the Sultanate of Brunei led by Sultan Bolkiah, the singing captain. The aftermath of the battle was the formation of an alliance between the newly established Kingdom of Maynila (Selurong) and the Sultanate of Brunei, to crush the power of the Kingdom of Tondo and the subsequent installation of the Pro-Islamic Rajah Sulaiman into power. Furthermore, Sultan Bolkiah’s victory over Sulu and Seludong (modern day Manila), as well as his marriages to Laila Mecanai, the daughter of Sulu Sultan Amir Ul-Ombra (an uncle of Sharifa Mahandun married to Nakhoda Angging or Maharaja Anddin of Sulu), and to the daughter of Datu Kemin, widened Brunei’s influence in the Philippines. Source
The Battle of Manila (3 February – 3 March 1945) was a major battle of the Philippine campaign of 1944-45, during the Second World War. It was fought by American and Filipino forces against Japanese troops in Manila, the capital city of the Philippines. The month-long battle, which resulted in the death of over 100,000 civilians and the complete devastation of the city, was the scene of the worst urban fightingin the Pacific theater. Japanese forces committed mass murder against Filipino civilians during the battle. Along with massive loss of life, the battle also destroyed architectural and cultural heritage dating back to the city’s foundation. The battle ended the almost three years of Japanese military occupation in the Philippines (1942–1945). The city’s capture was marked as General Douglas MacArthur’s key to victory in the campaign of reconquest. Source